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Role of Pulses in Indian Agriculture

Pulses occupy an important place in Indian agriculture. In India, pulses are grown over an area of 23.8 million hectares with a total production of 18.6 million tonnes. The average yield of pulses in India is about 735 kg/hectare. The country need to produce 405 million tonnes of additional pulses for meeting the domestic requirement and this can be possible only if we develop high yielding, short duration, drought and insect pest resistance varieties of pulses. In the rainy season, pulses like green gram, black gram, pigeon pea and cow pea are the most important and leading pulse crops of India. Chick pea, lentil,  pulserassevilla   lathyrus, field pea and kidney bean are the important pulse crops grown during winter season. However, green gram, black gram and cowpea are grown in both spring and rainy season. Pulses are generally grown in irrigated as well as rain fed area and belong to leguminaceae family. (Main growing areas of pulses in India are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Rajasthan. Madhya Pradesh is the leading state in India in pulses, in1erms of cultivated area and productivity.

Factors Responsible for Low Yield of Pulses

Delayed sowings/plantings
Low seed rate resulting in poor crop stands
Poor weed management during crop growth
Inefficient irrigation and rain water management
Large scale monoculture and non-inclusion of pulses in cropping systems
Lack of consideration of previous cropping in the same field
Inadequate plant protection.
Non-availability of seeds of HYVs at affordable price and at the appropriate time
Lack of more efficient N using genotypes
Imbalanced use of fertilisers
Poor management for secondary and micronutrient, mainly 5, Zn, Mn, Fe and B.
India has already enjoyed five decades of post green revolution period. However, stable or declining pulses production created several problems like protein malnutrition and insecurity of quality food and higher pulses cost. Demand of pulses is much higher than its availability which leads to hike in the prices of pulses which is unaffordable to consumers particularly population living in rural, hilly and tribal areas. The projected requirement of pulses by the year 2030 is estimated at about 32 million tonnes. Pulses play a pivotal role in enhancing livelihood security, nutritional security, food security, soil health, farm profit and environmental sustainability. Thus pulses are premier crops cultivated in Indian subcontinent.
Indian population is predominantly vegetarian. Pulses and its products are a rich source of essential nutrients like protein, minerals and vitamins. Pulses can easily meet the protein requirement of a vegetarian diet. As diet of Indians is deficient in respect of quality and quantity of protein, mixing of pulses grains with other cereals enhances the nutritive value of the food. Pulses are also a cost effective alternate to ameliorate energy protein/ nutrient elements deficiency in the country: Several serious diseases in human beings can be prevented by regular intake of pulses.

India has only three per cent of the world’s land resources and five per cent of water resources. Yet, Indian agriculture system supports 18 per cent of the world population. Since resources, viz. land, water and energy are limited, scarce, costly and having competing demand for urbanization industrialization and meeting farming needs. Further: degrading of soil health is posing major concerns for’ agricultural sustainability. Low soil organic matter and imbalanced use of fertilisers are affecting pulse crops productivity. A deficient monsoon followed by a further dry spell for the past few years has affected pulses production. The production of pulses in India has remained insufficient making us dependent on imports. The demand for these food commodities is expected to increase in future substantially. India is the world’s largest producer, importer and consumer of pulses Our annual import bill for pulses is Rs 100,000 million. Thus, there is a great need for increasing production of pulses as par capita availability of pulses is only 37 g/day as against 54 g/day required to fulfil the protein requirement under changing climate scenario, more emphasis shall be given on achieving the target of 24 million tonnes of pulses production by 2020 so as to make the country self sufficient and reduce the burden of import bill substantially Further, pulse seed production hubs are being developed in various regions to ensure availability of quality seeds of pulses to farmers.

The per capita availability of pulses has progressively declined from 65 g/ day in 1961 to merely 39.4 g in 2011, whereas, availability of cereals has gone up from 399.7 to 423.5g. For a country that faces persistent protein inflation and has preference for vegetarian diet, pulses are the most economical source of vegetable protein higher consumption of pulses will help address the scourge of pervasive malnutrition caused by protein deficiency among large sections of the Indian population.

National Food Security Mission (NFSM) and Pulses

Government has started National Food Security Mission (NFSM) for food and nutritional security and for promotion of cultivation of pulses and other food have been grains. Recently more states covered under National Food Security Mission. Under National Food Security Mission pulses cultivation has been started in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand and all the North East states. Salient points of National Food Security Mission are given below.

Seven Crops Rice, Wheat, Pulses, Jute, Sugarcane, Cotton, Coarse Cereals covered under NFSM.
Fifty per cent NFSM has been dedicated for development of pulses.
Cultivation of pulses under NFSM has been started in J&K, HP, UK, and all North Eastern States.)
Pulses have the capability to protect the soil from wind and water erosion in arid in and semi arid tropics. The roots of pulse plant have Rhizobium nodules that work for nitrogen fixation in the soil. For better nitrogen fixation suitable species, A of Rhizobium should be applied for different pulse crops. Pulses are rich source of protein and can be easily grown under rice wheat cropping system in North West India. Pulses improves soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and hence the farmers need to adopt this technology in the region.
Balanced Fertilisation

Balanced fertilizer use at the macro level in India is generally equated with a nutrient consumption ration of 4:2:1 (N: P205:K20′)

Use of bio fertilisers such as Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Phosphate salubilising bacteria (PSB) and Trichoderma also resulted in significant increase in all growth and yield parameters in pulse crops. Apart from this it has a potential role in saving of chemical fertilisers in pulse crops cultivation. Bio fertilisers such as PSB and mycorrhiza fungi significantly increases the yield and yield attributing characters and P content in shoot in pulse crop. Similarly, the growth attributes and nutrient uptake in pulse crops also increased due to application of Rhizobium, PSB Azotobacter and Azospirillum compared to control.

Processing, Packaging and Storage

Go overcome pulse crisis in future, emphasis! may be given on farm processing and value addition of pulses and storage facilities which are needed as pulses grain are easily damaged by insects and pests. Further, moisture percentage in the pulse grains should be brought down to or less after sun drying and water proof bags such as thick polyethylene bags should be used for packing and storage. These” bags should be heat sealed. In case of higher seed moisture, jute bags are recommended. Pulses seeds being hygroscopic in nature, absorb moisture from the atmosphere until the equilibrium is reached between the vapour pressure of seed and atmosphere. Therefore, efforts should be made that relative humidity in the seed storage is kept as low as possible and any chance of absorbing moisture by the seed from atmosphere is avoided.

Aeration during storage of seed is important, particularly when moisture content is low. Emphasis may also be given on pulses processing techniques, utilization centre and development of local markets for pulse produce. So that better harvest of pulses may improve the economy and living standard of small and marginal farmers.

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Traveling Planner – Before You Book Seats on Flights to Japan!

Japan’s magnificently developed cities and exotic locations make it an ideal destination to spend your vacations. Gear up to get acquainted with charming east and book flights to Japan with the help of online travel service providers. Read this article to plan your vacations in Japan to make it a memorable one.

Climatic Conditions of Japan
Japan lies in the temperate zone and hence the mercury varies from north to south. It varies from city to city. If you want to experience the nation to the fullest, fill your bags with both woolens and summer wear before boarding flights to Japan.

Not-to-Miss Destinations in Japan
Though being a superpower, Japan still abides to its culture and takes pride in exhibiting its cultural heritage. Here is a list of some favorite tourist destinations of Japan so that you feel comfortable once you board expensive or cheap flights to Japan.

Tokyo
The capital city of Japan is the ideal destination to start the tour of the country. There are scenic beauties as well as architectural marvels which will make your visit to Japan a memorable experience. Once the flights to Japan land at the city’s international airport, you’ll get a feel of diversity in city’s historic and cultural trends. You can visit Nikko, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as Kamakura to have a glimpse of Japan’s best shrines and temples.

Kyoto
Kyoto attracts large number of tourists because of the presence of some exclusive world heritage sites. This city gives you a perfect idea about the feudal history of Japan. Before availing services of agencies to book Japan flights make sure your itinerary includes visit to this city.

Mt. Fuji
Mt. Fuji is a secret mountain and climbing its trail is considered to be a ritual amongst Japanese. ラブドール If you’ve booked cheap flights to Japan with the help of some online travel agency, just make it clear whether it provides visit to this holy mountain or not.

Hiroshima
Who can forget the name of Hiroshima where the first atomic bombs was dropped? There is Peace Park and Peace Memorial Museum in the city that were built to commemorate the destruction of city during World War II. Your trip to Japan is incomplete if you don’t visit Hiroshima since it holds historical and political significance.

Dining and Shopping in Japan
Japanese food can tickle your taste buds as there is minimalist elegance is the local food items. Most of the dishes are prepared using meat. Japanese food is not confined to sushi and noodles only. There are some economical and elegant eating outlets where you can gorge on local Japanese food without spending much. Adding on, there are some international eateries in major cities which serve almost every cuisine available across the globe.

You can shop from the local markets if you want to carry some souvenirs home. If you are facing any difficulties in getting tickets for flights to Japan, you can always check out websites of leading travel agencies.

Sophia Smith is an experienced content writer for business development at Crystal Travel. For more information on cheap flights to Japan [http://www.ticketstojapan.co.uk/] and flights to Japan visit crystaltravel

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Stargate Worlds – Science Fiction Or Science Fact?

So who do you think built the historical pyramids of Egypt? Is the response the same as that of the modern day archaeologists who have to respond to their Christian and Jewish investors and their Egyptian hosts. That they were constructed by the bare hands of ancient Egyptians some five thousand years way back. A task that would have required the setting in place of twenty tons of blocks for every 3 minutes for more than 20 years!

Stargate An Actual Account of Events or a Story

Or, is the real explanation patterned after the favorite science fiction movie Stargate. That there was some extraterrestrial hand in the building of the ancient pyramids of Egypt. Besides, what about all of the other similar pyramids built across across the world, such as the ancient pyramids built somewhere in central and south America and Asia?

A Question Whether Science Fact or Science Fiction

Who possibly constructed them and is it only a coincidence that all were built simultaneously, around five thousand years ago? Why is it that a movie such as Stargate is promoted as science fiction when many so called science fiction movies of the past have eventually turned out to be based on fact, the only drawback is that they were years ahead of their time?

Earlier Pessism of Manned Space Station

It was only in the years 1940 and 1950 that anyone who dared to intimate the possibility of space shuttles, space stations and manned expeditions to the moon was looked upon as highly improbable. What about time travel and the future chances of molecular transport. Do you recall beam me up Scotty on the famous movie Star Trek?

We Are All Made Up of Empty Space

After all, all of us and the world 168-stargate  that we live in is all essentially comprised of empty space. Electrons spinning around atoms nuclei only make the semblance of solid mass. In fact, if the whole world was squeezed to the extent that all the empty space between electrons and the atomic nucleus was eradicated, the whole world could fit into a tea cup. This isn’t speculation. This implies science fact. So is StarGate really science fiction after all?

The Latest Development from the Stargate Franchise Stargate Worlds

Currently in development by Cheyenne Mountain Entertainment in collaboration with MGM is Stargate Worlds, one of the current online MMORPGs to hit the picture. If you’re a fan of the movie you just might love the game because it has a direct link of the backstory of the earlier film.

Although it has yet to be released, application for beta testing is open. If your application is accepted, you’ll get to play the game before it`s released, and help test the games mechanics out before it is finalized for launching.

 

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Online Affiliated Marketing

Online Affiliate Marketing is a revenue sharing venture between a website owner and an online merchant. The website owner will place advertisements on his websites to either help sell the merchant’s products or to send potential customers to the merchant’s website, all in exchange for a share of the profits.

Affiliate Marketing Program
An affiliate marketing program is sometimes called an affiliate program, nutritionhubb but also may be referred to as a pay-for-performance program or an associate program. An affiliate program is a marketing tool for the e-business that operates it, called merchant or advertiser and a source of revenue for the e-business that participates in it, called an affiliate or associate or publisher.

There are three ways to earn money through affiliate marketing:
1) Pay per Click or Cost-per-click affiliate programs: Every time a potential customer leaves the affiliate website by “clicking” on the link leading to the merchant’s website, a certain amount of money is deposited in the affiliate’s account. This amount can be pennies or dollars depending on the product and amount of the commission.
2) Pay per Lead or Cost-per-lead affiliate programs: The merchant pays the affiliate a set fee for each visitor who clicks through and takes and action at the merchant’s site, such as completing an online survey, registering at the site, or opting-in to receive e-mail.
3) Pay per Sale or Cost-per-sale affiliate programs: Every time a sale is made as a result of advertising on the affiliate’s website, a percentage, or commission, is deposited into the affiliate’s account.

The Amazon Story
The world’s biggest bookstore has one of the most successful examples of an affiliate program (called their associate program). Amazon now has well over 1 million affiliates! That is over 1 million websites actively promoting their products every single second of every single day. Amazon generates over 40% of its revenue through its affiliates program. That is over $3 billion in revenue every single year! As another (somewhat humble by comparison) example, Zeald generates over 50% of its revenue using its own unique affiliates program. Admittedly, not quite billions of dollars but that is definitely millions of dollars of revenue every single year.

Thousands of diverse e-businesses operate affiliate programs: E.g. barnes&nobale, dell,1-800-flowers, rackspace managed hosting etc.

Affiliate Programs as a Marketing Tool
The two major Advantages to merchant
1. Tie marketing effort directly to a lead or sales.
2. The merchant pays only for results.
The two major Advantages to affiliate
1. Additional source of revenue for affiliate who also sells products/services
2. Primary source of revenue for affiliate who offers entertainment or information
Two Approaches to Operating a Successful Affiliate Marketing
1. Acquire a huge and affiliate membership. e.g. The Amazon associates programs have over 1 million members as diverse as:
– RVPart – Sells parts for recreational vehicles and motor homes.
– Dilbert – Site for view cartoons, play games, send electronic greeting cards etc
– Books for Managers – Site for business reviews and lists of the currant top-selling business-related books provided by Business week, The New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, USA Today, and other publications.
– HaperCollins – Its site to promote its authors and their books. However, like many book publishers. HaperCollins sells its books through bookstores and not directly to the public.
2. Acquire a smaller number of highly effective affiliates that have a high volume of website traffic and offer web page content, products and services that are directly related to the merchant’s products and services.

Affiliate Programs as a Revenue Source
Participating in an affiliate program and then getting the most out of your participation involves:
– Selecting the appropriate merchant and affiliate program for your e-business
– Understand the terms of the affiliate agreement
– Add custom links to merchant’s site from affiliate Web pages
– Build traffic at affiliate site to increase click-troughs to merchant site.

Top 10 Tips for Choosing the Affiliate Program That Is Right for You
1. You have to identify a product or service for which there is a need. The product should be such that you would love and enjoy promoting it. You could start by searching for “Affiliate Programs” in the Search Engines.
2. The product or service should be relevant to your website.
3. It is always wise to join an affiliate program that is long standing, safe and secure and has a good reputation in the Internet world. This can be easily verified from the Better Business Bureau or other similar organizations. Visits to Forums and Discussion Groups will also provide you with a lot of useful information.
4. Most affiliate program providers provide a commission of 5% to 50%. The commission you earn for the sale of a product is your main income. So while choosing an affiliate program you should study the commission paid out and decide on a program that pays at least 35% for you to run your business successfully.
5. There should be a proper tracking system in place to record all the clicks and sales made through the text links and banners placed on your website, e-mails and other advertisements.
6. One important factor that is often overlooked is the “hits per sale ratio”. This indicates the number of hits that have to be made to a Text Link or Banner to generate a sale. This will give you an idea as to how much traffic is needed before a sale is made.
7. How often are commissions paid? This is another important matter that should be considered. Most reputed organizations pay their affiliates monthly or when they accumulate a minimum commission of $50 to $ 100 or as indicated by you. You should avoid any program that requires too many sales to reach the minimum amount.
8. Affiliate Programs are generally single tier or two tiers. A single tier program pays you for whatever business you have generated. On the other hand a two tier program pays you for the business you have generated and also a commission for the sales generated by a sub- affiliate, you have sponsored. A two tier program is always advantageous.
9. Long standing reputed organizations provide a whole range of tools and resources such as Banners, Text Links, Brochures, Websites and training for their affiliates. When choosing look out for such organizations because they certainly make life much easier and helps you grow your home based business.
10. Finally, you must read and understand the agreement before you join as an affiliate even if it happens to be the best organization in the world.

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Why Is Digital Marketing So Important

Why is digital marketing so important?

The next big hopes for the best results in business development and career growth.

As the internet users across the world have been increased massively by year on year and when it compares to since 2000-2018 the ratio is increasing year by year. selvianstores Now the fifty percent (50%) of the population around the world are using the internet. And by 2020 the active internet users are crossing 65% of the population across the world.

The main reason to increase the active internet users in last few years is due to the high usage of smartphones, tablets, and other smart devices around the world. These are very handy and useful to carry along with people where ever they go. Considering all these points the online marketing is a vast and broadly open to all the people around the world to connect through multiple devices like (Mobile (Smartphone), Laptop, Desktop, Tablet, Smart TV etc.) So this is going to help the Digital Marketing industry to expand worldwide their online market everywhere without having any shops in a particular place.

Now let us know the importance and the advantages of Digital Marketing.
The important thing in the digital marketing it is very easy to adapt and connect with the target audience worldwide. There are multiple chapters under digital marketing category which is coming with different modules. A few prime modules details have been briefly given below for the reference.

The prime chapters in digital marketing courses

1 Websites (for online presence)
2 Content Marketing
3 SEO/ Search Engine Optimization
4 Google Ads
5 Social Media Marketing/ Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram etc.
6 Email Marketing
7 Mobile Marketing
8 Social Media Optimization
9 Online Reputations Management
10 Analytics

So when the industrialist, business owner, service providers understand these methods why those are very important in the digital marketing field and the need of online presence for any business in current situation then this will become very easy to implement the online marketing strategies in their industry or field.

Digital Marketing job openings are everywhere around the world. Need to learn digital marketing courses thoroughly to perform well in the industry. When you complete the digital marketing training from the institute at Academy, your confidence level would be high and you can easily get the job as desired.

The Main Channels of Digital Marketing Courses

Websites

The online presence is very very important to any of the business for the present generation in the current marketing situation as without the website or information on online about your business which can’t be taken far away. So that the websites which is having the complete details about your business and gives more information to your clients or consumers and makes them know more about your business and its functions. So without the online presence, it is hard to reach more people and create the awareness about the products and brand name.

Content Marketing

Why is content very important in digital Marketing field or online marketing? As the content is the king of all the other chapters of digital marketing or online marketing because when consumer visit a shop directly to purchase or inquire about any of the product in the shops the shopkeeper will explain them thoroughly the features and benefits of the products.

But when it comes to the online platform, the content itself will act/work as a sales executive or shopkeeper so here the content will be your representative on behalf of your business. So the content is going to bring more customer, visitors or business towards your website when you write a unique content on your webpage by itself the content starts speaking about your products and companies.

SEO/ Search Engine Optimization

This is one of the processes which allow you to list and run your websites online or search engines like (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ask.com, AOL, Baidu, DuckDuckGo etc.) without making any payment to them. But the very important thing in this is it is not so easy to rank in SERP/ Search engine result page as there are several websites have already been listed under these search engine platforms so which needs to work hard to rank better in search engine result page. This process is called as a Search Engine Optimization.

Google Ads

Google ads are one of the very best tools to promote the products, services, or brands anywhere and everywhere across the world. The tool Google AdWords which is consists of multiple options in this software. Google Ads will provide an instant result for any campaigns. To create a better a campaign of your brand awareness and services the Google ads will provide a very good platform for the business owners, corporate sectors and the service providers around the world to reach their target audience through the Google AdWords channel. It is one of the main paid modules digital marketing courses.

SMM / Social Media Marketing

Social media marketing is one of the very effective methods in digital marketing strategies. The social media marketing tools are involved with various social media sites. The major SMM tools are (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+ YouTube, Pinterest, Instagram, etc.) these tools are very effective to reach the people around the world within a few seconds of time. By using or implementing the strategies of social media in any kind of services or business field is really going to give them the hundred percent results in their Social Media Marketing campaigns. SMM can be learned with digital marketing courses.

Email Marketing

Email marketing is one of the very old marketing methods and effective ways to send an individual newsletter and other subjects to the particular person by using the one’s e-mail id. This form will exist even in future too, in spite of many others marketing channels, however, the e-mail marketing will be continued as earlier without any hamper. As an email marketing methods are completely different than the other marketing methods. It is also one of the main modules of Digital Marketing courses.

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Self Esteem and Weight Loss

Did you know your own self-esteem may be a contributing factor to some of your problems?

Let’s look at weight loss for example.

We all know that the weight loss industry is a multi billion dollar per annum business and who do the advertisers target?

Women!

In order to encourage women to join their weight loss plan they highlight their insecurities in their advertising copy.

“What insecurities are these,” you may be asking.

You may have heard of the term “fat shaming.”

Women are shamed into feeling guilty even if they are just a few kilos heavier than last year.

Is it any wonder that so many of them suffer from insecurities.

My advice to women is this:

1 Stop comparing yourself with others

It is silly to try to be somebody you are not. Instead of trying to be someone other than yourself you must ask the question, “What makes me tick,?” and set your goals accordingly.

2 Do it for you and not for buy aluminum scraps  others.

If you are taking on a new diet do it for yourself and not for others. Don’t be a people pleaser and try to impress others for the sake of it.

3 Your value is not measured by your dress size.

What makes you unique is what values you. It is what you do with what talents you have been gifted that gives you value. It is important to use your talents for the benefit of others. That is real value!

4 Ditch the “If only,” mindset.

Many women and men for that matter think, “If I lost xx amount of weight, got, a new car, a better house, had a new husband/wife, or whatever then I will be happy.”

Life does not work that way. Joy comes from within and has nothing to do with outward appearances or the opinion of others. Many people after they have acquired what they thought would make them happy are still not content with their life. The novelty soon wears off then they have their eye on something else.

5 Work on your self-esteem.

It is important to work on your self-esteem otherwise people are going to push you around.

The key is to be assertive and not allow unkind comments to affect. Assertiveness is not just sticking up for yourself. It is recognising the television advertising for what they are; to make you want to buy their products.

I am not saying you should not go on one of these diets but to do it for the right reasons.

The bottom line is that a low self-esteem will undermine your dieting plan.

How?

Have you heard of the expression “Comfort eating?”

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Minerals, Herbs and Berries for High Blood Pressure

Managing high blood pressure using the methods prescribed can be difficult for many people. Since doctors often prefer prescription medications and limiting diets with exercise over natural remedies, it can actually cause a patient even more stress, and increased blood pressure levels. It takes time to see a significant reduction in hypertension levels through exercise and weight loss, and even through dietary changes.

If you have long-standing hypertension that needs frequent monitoring, it is best to speak to your doctor before you start taking any supplements.

According to WebMD, taking pharmaceutical hypertension medications may have harmful side effects, too. However, research has found that natural remedies may help to prevent and treat high blood pressure.

Natural Remedies for High Blood Pressure

1. Nitric Oxide

Known as a hypertension lowering agent, nitric oxide is a popularly prescribed supplement. NO is naturally produced by the body to help expand blood vessels and to allow blood to flow through the body. As such, it improves bloodlow and oxygen delivery.

2. Hawthorne Berry Tea

Hawwthorne berry helps to dilate arteries and improves circulation to take oxygen and nutrients to the heart. Drinking a cup of Hawthorne Berry tea 2-3 times a day will have a positive effect on your HBP.

3. Potassium Mineral Supplement

Potassium is an essential mineral, specifically for its role in hypertension management. The Annals of Internal medicine published a study which followed hypertensive patients for one year. During this time the patients followed a diet rich in potassium, and after a year they were able to reduce their blood pressure medications while maintaining normal levels.

4. Calcium

In addition to preventing high blood pressure, calcium can also help to reduce hypertensive blood levels naturally. In addition to supporting healthy bones, calcium can also help to lower blood pressure levels naturally.

5. Magnesium

The Hypertension Journal  striction bp reviews published a study in which patients with uncomplicated hypertension took oral magnesium supplements for four weeks. During this time, both their BP levels and triglycerides were reduced. This proves that magnesium is an excellent natural HBP remedy.

While the general consensus is that it’s better to obtain your nutrition requirements from food sources rather than supplementation, it is also important to understand the levels of nutrients in your food. Our food is no longer as nutrient rich as it was 30 years ago, and that is why, unless you eat a diet that provides you with more than 100% of RDAs on all nutrients, you need a daily multiple supplement.

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Horse Stall Mats – Different Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

Horse stall mats are becoming increasingly popular, due to the advantages they provide over other stall floor surfaces:

Yielding. The traditional concrete floor is very hard. Unless you provide a thick layer of bedding, this hardness can stress joints, possibly injure feet, and cause sore points where the horse lays down to rest or sleep. Mats provide a softer and more yielding surface which is more comfortable for horses and less likely to result in impact stress injuries.
Warmth. The materials used to make horse stall mats are naturally insulating. This is both more comfortable and healthier for horses, especially in winter.
Traction.  matlockoapclubs   Concrete and wooden floors can be slippery when wet; mats provide better traction and reduce this risk to horses.
Smooth. Many mats have a smooth surface, which is much easier to clean than concrete or wood surfaces.
Sterilization. Stall mats can be easily sterilized with a disinfectant, which is difficult with absorbent surfaces such as wood or earth. Especially in the case of a horse contraction a contagious disease, the ability to sterilize the stall floor is important.
Drainage. Unlike concrete, mats allow urine to drain off. Usually this happens at the joints between mats, although a few types of mats allow the urine to drain through the mat itself.
Bedding. Many owners find that less bedding is required with stall mats, partly because the mats perform the function of bedding (insulation, soft and comfortable surface, shock absorption, traction) and partly because the ability to drain off urine means that less bedding is soiled. This saves not only on bedding costs, but also in terms of the time and money associated with stall cleaning.
A mat floor can be laid on top of any hard, non-moving surface such as concrete, asphalt and wooden floors. As such, mats are more a floor covering, rather than a stand-alone floor. Some mats (the thicker and stronger ones) can also be laid on compacted stone, provided that that stones do not exceed a certain size (large stones can cause bumps or even tears in the mats). Soft surfaces, such as earth or sand, are unsuitable as they can move under the mats, resulting in depressions in the mats. Eventually, this can lead to separations between the mats or even tearing of the mats.

Stall mats vary in types, quality and performance characteristics. Consequently, selecting a stall mat for individual requirements requires consideration of a number of factors. The important differences between various stall mats are in terms of:

Material. The most commonly used material is rubber, although there are different types and qualities of rubber used (largely dependent on manufacturer). There are also non-rubber mats, made out of high-tech materials such as EVA. High quality rubber tends to be more expensive, but is more durable. High-tech materials such as EVA tend to have somewhat different performance characteristics (e.g. more shock absorbent) and tend to be lighter for a given size.
Size. Mats usually vary in size from about 30cm square (a square foot) to about 2 square meters (3 square yards). However, we have seen mats up to 12 feet by 12 feet (almost 4 meters by 4 meters), designed to cover an entire stall with a single piece (which weighs 600 pounds or almost 300kg). Large mats are heavier (the bigger ones weight 100 Kg. or 200 pounds each) which make placement more difficult. However, their weight and size is an advantage in that it makes them less likely to move once put in place and also less likely for edges or corners to curl up. Smaller mats are easier to work with. In the event of a tear or other damage, it is cheaper to replace a small mat than a large one.
Thickness. The thickness varies from about 1 centimeter to over 2 centimeters. Thicker mats have 4 advantages: tend to be more durable, are less likely for the edges to curl, less likely for the mats to move, thickness is usually an indication of quality. However, as thickness increases, so do both price and weight.
Weight. The weight depends on the type of material (EVA is much lighter then rubber) and the thickness of the mat. Heavy mats are more likely to stay in place, whereas lighter mats are convenient if you are often travelling with your horse (e.g. between horse shows and competitions) and like to take a portable mat with you. One of the advantages of a mat made from EVA instead of rubber is that it weighs only about a quarter as much as rubber, so is more suitable if you need to move it often.
Interlocking. Some mats interlock, while others have straight edges and rely simply on their weight to hold them in place. All else being the same (size, weight, thickness), the interlocking mats stay in place better and are far less likely for edges to lift. Some mats are designer to lock and unlock easily (for easy transport if you move locations with your horse often) while others are designed to lock firmly in place (making transport more difficult, but providing better performance in static installations).
Quality. Like any product, quality varies. A long guarantee (5 to 10 years) is an indication of quality. Thicker mats are usually of better quality than thin ones. Given 2 rubber mats of the same size, if one is substantially heavier it is probably of better quality (the lighter one is probably not pure rubber, but instead rubber mixed with inferior and lighter materials). None of these is an absolute mark of quality, but usually they are good indications. It is also worth checking if the manufacturer has a reputation for producing quality products. Also ask if the rubber has be revulcanized (which is good) or if the rubber has been bound with urethane glue (lower quality).
Permeable. The mats should not be permeable, which is to say that urine should not be able to enter the surface of the mat. If the materials or production methods are of low quality, the mats may be partly permeable, resulting in urine entering the mat and producing odours.
Porous. Some mats are porous, allowing urine to grain through. However, the majority are not porous, although urine can drain through the joins where the mats meet. With smaller mats, there are more joins, so the urine tends to run through more. This can either be an advantage or a disadvantage (see discussion below).
Flat, grooved or footed bottom. Many mats have flat bottoms. With flat bottoms, any urine that gets under the mats (for example, draining through at the joints between mats) can be trapped there. If you have a permeable surface under the mats (e.g. compacted stone) this may not be an issue, but if you have a non-permeable surface (e.g. concrete) under the mats, you do not want to have trapped urine releasing ammonia and odours. With groves or feet, such urine may be able to drain off (whether this happens in practice will depend on factors such as the slope of the underlying surface and whether there are dips in the underlying surface).
Portable. Some mats are designer to be portable, others are not. Factors to evaluate when considering portability include: weight, size, ability to roll up. If they are interlocking, check that they can be locked and unlocked easily and without special tools.
Reversible. Some stall mats have a top side and a bottom side, while others can be reversed (flipped over). The advantage of the latter is that when one side shows wear, you can flip them over to extent the lifespan.
Flat or textured top. Some mats have a flat and smooth top, while others have a textured top. Smooth tops are easier to clean (the groves or bumps on textured mats tend to trap dirt), while textured tops provide horses with better traction. Some people buy mats with a grooved bottom and then flip them over so that the grooved side is up; this is particularly done for high-traffic areas such as corridors or washing areas (where the water and soap would otherwise produce a slippery surface).
Cut to fit. Stall mats come in a great variety of sizes. However, to get a close fit, you may need to cut the mats. In this case, before buying the mats, check that they are designed to allow this.
Price. Prices vary, but as a rough indication look at 20-40 euros per square meter.
For photos of different types (interlocking, textured), see horse floor mats.

Drainage

If the urine drains through the mats rather than resting on top of them, the amount of bedding which is soiled is greatly reduced. This reduces the amount of time required to clean the stall, reduces the amount of replacement bedding required, and reduces the amount of storage space required for soiled bedding.

Although all of these are important benefits, one must consider what happens to the urine after it has drained through the mats. If the surface underneath has good drainage (e.g. thick layer of crushed stone), then the urine can drain off. However, if the surface underneath is impermeable (e.g. concrete), then the urine simply builds up under the mats, where it can release ammonia into the air (which is unhealthy for horses stabled there, in particular for their lungs) and produce unpleasant smells. Although one could from time to time lift up the mats and clean underneath them, the fact remains the cleaning urine under the mats is more difficult than cleaning urine on top of them.

Consequently, depending on the underlying floor surface you may prefer that urine drains through, or you may prefer that it does not. Depending on your preference, you should chose mats accordingly: small mats drain more than larges ones (joins are closer together and there are more of them), straight edge mats drain more than interlocking, porous mats drain more than non-porous.

If you decide to use mats that easily allow urine to drain through, you should consider the following:

Choose a mat with grooved or footed bottoms, so that the urine can flow off rather than being trapped.
Try to have a floor with good drainage. If this is not possible, allow the urine to run off by using a floor which is flat (no dips where urine can pool), smooth (so that liquids run easily) and with a slant so that liquids run off.
Consider choosing mats whose design and weight allow them to be easily lifted out, permitting periodical washing down of the floor underneath.
Cleaning
A stall with rubber mats is cleaned out in much the same way (hay fork and/or shovel) as any other stall. Many people also periodically use a water hose to wash them down periodically. If the mats have feet or groves underneath, this can also help to flush out urine that has drained through between the joints (see above discussion about drainage).

One can also use a pressure jet. While this is very effective, be careful not to hold the pressure jet immediately against the mat surface as this may damage the mat (your pressure jet manual should state the minimum distance to hold the pressure jet away from surfaces being cleaned).

If your mat must be absolutely clean, other cleaning tools that may be useful are a scrub brush, soap and disinfectant. Before using any chemical product on your mat, just the instructions provided with your mat to make sure that the chemical will not harm it.

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Why Should You Use An Outside Catering Company?

Putting together http://www.crustawoodfired.com/ a a hit outdoor event or feature may be an exceptionally worrying procedure for any occasion organiser.
Putting collectively a successful outdoor event or characteristic may be a very worrying method for any event organiser. If it’s far feasible to outsource the various occasion logistics it may assist to alleviate some of the strain that takes place when planning these occasions. One of the alternatives to be had to event organisers is that of using an outdoor catering employer to take care of each the food and beverages for the event. There are many blessings of the usage of out of doors catering company those come to encompass:

Unique Experience

On the entire, out of doors events/functions are normally tons more fun than indoor events as there is more space and a feeling of freedom. This makes it the correct putting for using an outdoor catering enterprise who can help to now not handiest cater for the event however also offer a unique revel in for those who need more than simply a great food provider.

Unique Food

Outside catering groups are able to create any kind of food which you want, although maximum agencies concentrate on a selected sort of food. Make positive that you pick out caterers that specialise in the meals which you need in your event. Certain foods won’t suit with certain activities, so it’s far quality to make sure that the right food is matched up with the right occasion, so make certain that your caterer is able to meet your occasion requirements.

Saving Cost and Time

Another major benefit of hiring an outside catering business enterprise is the reality that you’ll shop an lousy lot of time and money. The catering company might be able make sure that they have got the right quantity of elements and device so that the occasion might be capable of run smoothly.

Professionals Provide Genuine Guidance

The majority of outdoor catering agencies provide an awful lot more than just wonderful catering offerings, they’ve experienced specialists that every have a wealth of revel in of working on activities. For instance, they will be able to offer recommendation to event organisers at the pleasant ways to arrange the food items at the side of the association of the occasion so that nothing seems out of area. The best characteristic of those professionals is the fact that they have both the revel in and enterprise knowledge with a purpose to gift some of alternatives to customers with the intention to give a completely unique experience to their visitors and revel in the event themselves.

Read the full article here.

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Stuffed Mushroom Bowl – A Quick, Easy and Tasty Recipe

A stuffed mushroom bowl is my speedy simple and yummy breakfast today! I felt fortunate to get and purchase this monster mushroom since it was the lone enormous size mushroom left in the bin that day. Not good enough for the remainder of the week I neither cook nor eat at home as I had my suppers at work, church and when going out with my companions. So it is practically neglected if just I didn’t check the cooler yesterday. I’m sorry Mr. Soft to disregard you for such a long time!

Today I have no work and choose to treat myself with hand crafted cooking. Since the first occasion when I purchased the mushroom, I have wanted to stuff it with something yummy. You may be thinking about how enormous the mushroom is since I continue to say it’s anything but a monster mushroom. All things considered, the breadth is around 9 cm long. Perhaps you folks have seen a mushroom in this size however really this is my initial one. I was unable to discover this size of mushroom in my old neighborhood. I think it is charming and resembles a little bowl. https://mushroommenus.com/

In this post I will disclose to you how to make the stuffed mushroom bowl. The initial step is you need to track down a new and very huge size mushroom or whichever way is you can utilize more modest size mushrooms that will be incredible minuscule nibbles as well. This dish is ideal for canapé.

Fixings:

Mushrooms

Shaved meal turkey

Onion (diced)

Ground cheddar

Bean stew powder

Bit by bit:

Wash and cut the base piece of the mushroom cautiously

Barbecued the shaved meal turkey for around 1-2 minutes after seared and sweet-smelling

Sautee the diced onion with a smidgen of olive oil

Cut the turkey into little squared pieces

Blend the turkey and onion and ground cheddar in a bowl

Stuff the blend into the mushroom

Sprinkle with more cheddar to cover the filling

Prepare the mushroom around 3-4 minutes

Sprinkle bean stew powder on the top and serve!

I love the dish since this is such a blend of my #1 food varieties. I love mushroom, cheddar, onion and any sort of meat so turkey is on my rundown too. For the individuals who don’t care for onion, you can simply leave it yet for me onion is truly upgrading both the taste and the fragrance. You can likewise change the turkey with another meat or ham. I figure bacon will give a delicious fragrance or grounded hamburger will be fine as well. Glad cooking all!